Identify a risk factor (or factors) for a non-communicable disease (or diseases) and critically appraise and summarise the evidence for the relationship between the two, using your understanding and interpretation of the concept of causation. The public health importance of the disease in a specific, named, developed country should be identified, using relevant reports and studies. The implications for public health action in that country should be discussed. Learning Outcomes Addressed • Apply epidemiological and bio statistical methods and concepts within the context of public health planning, investigation and surveillance. • Review, critically appraise, and summarise published epidemiological papers and reports.