Solution-Which stage of spermatogenesis do the cells begin

1 The urinary system does all of the following, EXCEPT it
A secretes excess glucose molecules
B regulates blood volume
C contributes to stabilizing blood pH
D eliminates organic waste products
E regulates plasma concentrations of electrolytes

2 Conical structures that are located in the renal medulla are called
A pyramids
B renal columns
C renal pelvises
D nephrons
E calyces

3 The region known as the macula densa is part of
A the proximal convoluted tubule
B the distal convoluted tubule
C the collecting duct
D the ascending loop of Henle
E Bowman’s capsule

4 The cells of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells form the
A renal corpuscle
B filtration membrane
C loop of Henle
D juxtaglomerular apparatus
E afferent arteriole

5 A glomerulus is
A the expanded end of a nephron
B a knot of capillaries that lies within the renal corpuscle
C the portion of the nephron closest to the renal corpuscle
D the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct
E the horseshoe-shaped segment of the nephron

6 The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney.
1. afferent arteriole
2. arcuate artery
3. interlobar artery
4. renal artery
5. glomerulus
6. interlobular artery
7. efferent arteriole
8. peritubular capillary
The proper order in which blood passes through these vessels is
A 4, 6, 2, 3, 12, 5, 7, 8
B 4, 3, 2, 6, 12, 5, 7, 8
C 4, 3, 2, 6, 7, 5, 12, 8
D 4, 6, 2, 3, 7, 5, 12, 8
E 4, 3, 6, 2, 12, 5, 7, 8

7 The process of filtration is driven by
A active transport
B blood osmotic pressure
C blood hydrostatic pressure
D renal pumping

8 The mechanisms for maintaining the solute concentration gradient in the renal medulla require
A active transport of sodium and chloride ions from the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
B active transport of sodium and chloride ions from the ascending limb of the vasa recta
C the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to be permeable to water
D the vasa recta to be impermeable to water
E both A and B

9 Which of the following is greater?
A the concentration of solute in the filtrate at the beginning of the loop of Henle
B the concentration of solute in the filtrate at the bottom of the descending limb of the loop of Henle

10 The antidiuretic hormone
A increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water
B is secreted in response to low concentrations of potassium ions in the extracellular fluid.
C causes the kidneys to produce a larger volume of relatively solute-free urine
D helps regulate the concentration of potasium ion in the interstitial space
E is sensitive to changes in the blood concentrations of both sodium and potassium

11 In the loop of Henle
A water is secreted into the descending limb
B sodium and chloride ions are actively transported out of the ascending limb
C the ascending limb is very permeable to water
D the filtrate in the descending limb becomes more and more hypotonic
E filtrate is produced

12 Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism most?
A ADH
B aldosterone
C ANP
D BNP
E natriuretic peptide

13 All of the following are components of ECF, except
A cerebral spinal fluid
B peritoneal fluid
C lymph
D aqueous humor
E plasma

14 Which hormone plays a role in determining the rate of sodium absorption and potassium loss?
A ADH
B aldosterone
C ANP
D BNP
E natriuretic peptide

15 You are caring for a patient who has been vomiting and having diarrhea for the past five days. You suspect that his electrolyte levels are
A normal
B elevated
C the same as upon admission
D decreased
E noncritical

16 Which hormone affects the osmotic concentration of urine without affecting any ion levels?
A ADH
B aldosterone
C ANP
D BNP
E natriuretic peptide

17 The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of
A calcium ions
B chlorine ions
C potassium ions
D sodium ions
E magnesium ions

18 The higher the plasma concentration of aldosterone, the more efficiently the kidney will
A conserve sodium ions
B retain potassium ions
C stimulate urinary water loss
D secrete greater amounts of ADH
E all of the above

19 Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by
A stimulating thirst
B causing the release of ADH
C triggering the production and secretion of aldosterone
D A and B
E A, B, and C

20 Renal failure can result in
A decreased urea
B hyponatremia
C hyperkalemia
D hypokalemia
E none of the above

21 Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found in
A blood vessels
B lymph
C the cells of the body
D the interstitial space
E the cerebrospinal fluid

22 The principal cation in intracellular fluid is
A sodium
B potassium
C calcium
D magnesium
E chloride

23 When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained
A the osmolarity of the ECF falls
B osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF
C both the ECF and the ICF become more dilute
D there is an increase in the volume of the ICF
E both A and D

24 Consuming a meal high in salt will
A drastically increase the osmolarity of the blood
B result in a temporary increase in blood volume
C decrease thirst
D cause hypotension
E activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism

25 Aldosterone
A is secreted in response to elevated levels of sodium in the blood
B promotes sodium retention in the kidneys
C helps decrease blood volume
D increases the concentration of sodium in urine
E functions in pH regulation

26 When the level of sodium ion in extracellular fluid decreases,
A osmoreceptors are stimulated
B a person experiences an increased thirst
C more ADH is released
D there is an increase in the level of aldosterone
E there is an increase in the level of atrial natriuretic factor

27 Excess potassium ion is eliminated from the body by
A sweating
B the kidneys
C the liver
D the digestive system
E the spleen

28 The amount of potassium secreted by the kidneys is regulated by
A ADH
B aldosterone
C parathormone
D atrial natriuretic factor
E cortisol

29 Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone
A calcitonin
B calcitriol
C aldosterone
D cortisol
E ADH

30 Each of the following statements concerning chloride ions is true, except that
A chloride ions are the most abundant anions in the ECF
B chloride ion concentrations in the ICF are usually low
C chloride ions are absorbed along the digestive tract in the company of sodium ions
D large amounts of chloride ions are lost each day in the urine
E chloride ions are lost in perspiration

31 The primary role of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to
A buffer stomach acid
B buffer carbonic acid formed by carbon dioxide
C prevent pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids
D buffer the urine
E increase the amount of carbonic acid during ventilation

32 Acidosis can cause all of the following, except
A coma and death
B peripheral vasoconstriction
C cardiac arrhythmias
D heart failure
E It can cause all of the above

33 Hypoventilation would cause
A respiratory acidosis
B respiratory alkalosis
C metabolic acidosis
D metabolic alkalosis

34 In response to respiratory alkalosis, the
A respiratory rate increases
B tidal volume increases
C kidneys conserve bicarbonate
D kidneys secrete more hydrogen ions
E body retains more carbon dioxide

35 Prolonged vomiting can result in
A respiratory acidosis
B respiratory alkalosis
C metabolic acidosis
D metabolic alkalosis

36 A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of
A respiratory acidosis
B respiratory alkalosis
C metabolic acidosis
D metabolic alkalosis

37 A person with chronic diabetes will exhibit signs of
A respiratory acidosis
B respiratory alkalosis
C metabolic acidosis
D metabolic alkalosis

38 A person who chronically consumes large amounts of antacids to settle an upset stomach may risk
A respiratory acidosis
B respiratory alkalosis
C metabolic acidosis
D metabolic alkalosis

39 To survive, humans must maintain a normal volume and composition of
A ECF
B body fluids
C ICF
D plasma
E all of the above

40 A _____ acid is an acid that can leave solution and enter the atmosphere
A fixed
B organic
C volatile
D level
E short

41 The reproductive system
A produces gametes
B stores and transports gametes
C nourishes gametes
D A and B only
E all of the above

42 Projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septae, divide the testis into
A seminiferous tubules
B straight tubules
C lobules
D interstitial areas
E the tunica albuginea and the testis proper

43 Straight tubules originate at the seminiferous tubules and form a maze of passageways called the
A epididymis
B ductusdeferens
C rete testis
D efferent ducts
E ejaculatory ducts

44 The spermatic cord is
A a dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis
B a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens and the blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that serve the testis.
C a narrow opening that links the scrotal chamber with the peritoneal cavity
D the external marking of the boundary between the two chambers of the scrotum.
E a layer of smooth muscle in the skin of the scrotal sac.

45 Interstitial cells produce
A sperm
B inhibin
C nutrients
D androgens
E androgen-binding protein.

46 The sustentacular cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following, except that they
A maintain the blood-testis barrier
B support spermiogenesis
C secrete inhibin
D secrete testosterone
E secrete androgen-binding protein
47 Sperm production occurs in the
A ductusdeferens
B seminiferoustubules
C epididymis
D seminal vesicles
E rete testis

48 Sperm develop from stem cellscalled
A spermatogonia
B primary spermatocytes
C secondary spermatocytes
D spermatids
E spermatozoa

49 As developing sperm cells begin the process of meiosis, they become
A spermatogonia
B spermatocytes
C spermatids
D spermatozoons
E Sertoli cells

50 The cells that are formed at the end of meiosis are called
A spermatogonia
B primary spermatocytes
C secondary spermatocytes
D spermatids
E spermatozoa

51 Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A hydrostatic force
B ciliary action
C peristaltic contractions
D suction
E segmental movements

52 The following is a list of structures of the male reproductive tract.
1. ductus deferens
2. urethra
3. ejaculatory duct
4. seminal vescicle
The order in which sperm pass through these structures from the testes to the penis is
A 12, 3, 4, 2
B 4, 3, 12, 2.
C 4, 12, 2, 3
D 4, 12, 3, 2.
E 12, 4, 3, 2

53 The structure that carries sperm from the seminal vesicle to the urethra is the
A ductusdeferens
B epididymis
C seminal vesicle
D ejaculatory duct
E corpus cavernosum

54 The tubular structure that produces a secretion that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and fibrinogen is the
A prostate gland
B bulbourethral gland
C seminal vesicle
D corpus cavernosum
E preputial gland

55 The structure that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A seminal vesicle
B bulbourethral gland
C prostate gland
D preputial gland
E Bartholin’s gland

56 Seminal fluid contains all of the following, EXCEPT
A spermatozoons
B seminal fluid
C prostaglandins
D fructose
E enzymes

57 The male organ of copulation is the
A urethra
B ejaculatory duct
C penis
D corpus cavernosum
E corpus spongiosum

58 The portion of the penis that surrounds the external urethral meatus is the
A prepuce
B glans
C corpus spongiosum
D corpus cavernosum
E corona glandis

59 The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A membranous urethra
B penile urethra
C glans penis
D corpus spongiosum
E corpus cavernosum

60 The role of the pituitary hormone follicle-stimulating hormone in males is to
A stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone
B stimulate the sustentacular cells to produce inhibin
C initiate sperm production in the testes
D develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics
E influence sexual behaviors and sex drive

61 The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A FSH
B LH
C ACTH
D ADH
E GH

62 The broad ligament is
A an extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus
B a thickened fold of mesentery that supports and stabilizes the position of the ovary
C a pocket formed between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior surface of the rectum
D a structure that attaches the ovary to the wall of the uterus
E a structure that extends from the lateral surface of the ovary to the pelvic wall

63 The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the
A vagina
B uterine tube
C ovary
D uterus
E cervix

64 The round ligaments extend from the
A base of the uterus and vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis
B lateral surface of the uterus to the anterior surface of the sacrum
C lateral margins of the uterus, through the inguinal canal to the base of the genitals
D body of the uterus to the fundus
E cervix of the uterus to the vagina.

65 The muscular layer of the uterus is the
A endometrium
B perimetrium
C myometrium
D uterometrium
E sarcometrium

66 Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, EXCEPT that
A at the time of birth the ovaries contain only primary oocytes
B ova develop from stem cells called oogonia
C an ovum will only complete meiosis if it is fertilized
D oogenesis occurs continuously from puberty until menopause
E the first meiotic division is completed just prior to ovulation

67 The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the miIDle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A follicle maturation
B menstruation
C ovulation
D menopause
E atresia

68 A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A follicle maturation
B menstruation
C ovulation
D menopause
E atresia

69 During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle,
A ovulation occurs
B a new functional layer is formed in the uterus
C secretory glands and blood vessels develop in the endometrium
D the old functional layer is sloughed off
E the corpus luteum is formed

70 During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle
A ovulation occurs
B a new uterine lining is formed
C glands enlarge and accelerate their rates of secretion
D the old functional layer is sloughed off
E the corpus luteum is formed

71 During the menses
A ovulation occurs
B a new uterine lining is formed
C secretory glands and blood vessels develop in the endometrium
D the old functional layer is sloughed off
E the corpus luteum is formed

72 All of the following are true of the vagina, EXCEPT that it
A serves as a passageway for the elimination of menstrual fluids
B receives the penis during coitus
C holds spermatozoa prior to their passage to the uterus
D forms the lower portion of the birth canal
E loses a portion of its lining during menstrual flow

73 In the mammary gland, milk production occurs in the
A lobes
B lobules
C lactiferous duct
D lactiferous sinus
E lactiferous adipose tissue

74 The clitoris is
A a thin epithelial fold that partially or completely blocks the entrance to the vagina
B a fleshy fold that encircles the vestibule
C a mound of fat that is superior to the pubis
D a mass of erectile tissue located at the anterior margin of the labia minora
E a shallow recess that surrounds the cervical portion of the vagina

75 The principal hormone(s) secreted by the corpus luteum is/are
A LH
B FSH
C progesterone
D estrogen
E estradiol

76 Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A FSH
B LH
C relaxin
D estrogen and progesterone
E human chorionic gonadotropin

77 The developing follicle cells secrete
A estrogens
B progesterone
C FSH
D LH
E GnRH

78 The hormone estradiol does all of the following, EXCEPT that it
A stimulates bone and muscle growth
B maintains female secondary sex characteristics
C stimulates the symptoms of menopause
D maintains functional accessory reproductive glands and organs
E initiates repair and growth of the endometrium

79 All of the following occur at puberty in both sexes, EXCEPT that
A levels of FSH increase while levels of LH decrease
B gametogenesis begins
C secondary sex characteristics begin to appear.
D a sex drive develops
E both A and B

80 The _____ is the inferior portion of the uterus that extends from the isthmus to the vagina
A body
B cervix
C fundus
D myometrium
E internal os

82 Which muscle draws the scrotal sac close to the body to control scrotal temperature?
A dartos
B inguinal
C cremaster
D ductus
E parietal

83 During which stage of spermatogenesis do the cells begin meiosis?
A spermatogonia
B primary
C first
D secondary
E third

84 The primary oocyte and its follicle cell form in the
A cortex
B ovarian follicles
C primordial follicle
D ovarian cycle
E follicle cells

85 DNA replicates during
A meiosis I.
B prophase II
C meiosis II
D anaphase II
E both A and C

86 Sustentacular cells contain or function in all of the following, EXCEPT
A secretions of MIF
B progesterone-binding protein
C spermiogenesis
D supporting meiosis
E serving as a blood-testis barrier

87 Which is the function of the ovaries?
A secretion of hormones
B production of oocytes
C formation of immature gametes
D secretion of inhibin
E all of the above

88 Where does oocyte growth and meiosis I occur?
A in the cortex
B within ovarian follicles
C within the primordial follicle
D at the ovarian cycle
E within follicle cells

89 The completion of meiosis in males produces four spermatids, each containing
A 23 chromosomes
B 23 pairs of chromosomes
C the diploid number of chromosomes
D 46 pairs of chromosomes
E 46 chromosomes

90 Testosterone and other androgens are secreted by the
A hypothalamus
B anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
C sustentacular cells
D interstitial cells
E hypophysis

91 The solid ball of cells that is formed after several rounds of cell division following fertilization is called a
A chorion
B blastula
C gastrula
D morula
E blastocyst

92 The hormone that increases the flexibility of the symphysis pubis and causes dilation of the cervix during pregnancy is
A luteinizing hormone (LH).
B progesterone
C human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
D human placental lactogen (hPL).
E relaxin

93 In _____, implantation occurs somewhere other than in the uterus
A ectopicpregnancy
B abortion
C hydramnios
D placenta previa
E none of the above

94 Human chorionic somatomammotropin will not be converted to active status without
A estrogen
B progesterone
C placental prolactin
D only A and B
E A, B, and C

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