Explain the importance of the phosphate bond

1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) has been called the energy currency of the cell. Briefly outline the cycle by which energy is stored in and released from ATP. Explain the importance of the phosphate bond to this series of processes. Be prepared to discuss how ATP is critically important to cellular chemical processes.
2. Enzymes are protein materials that serve to control chemical processes within the cell. Briefly describe how enzymes work and explain their importance to the chemical processes of living organisms. Pick a specific enzyme and describe its function and the importance of that function to life. Discuss how the loss of that enzyme would disrupt living processes? Be prepared to discuss the action and importance of the variety of enzymes used as examples in this discussion
3. Mitosis and meiosis are the two major processes by which eukaryotic cells reproduce. Compare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Consider the stages involved in each and their eventual products. How are the differences biologically significant relative to growth and reproduction? Be prepared to discuss how life is dependent upon both types of cellular reproduction.
4. Mendel used mathematics and experimentation to derive major principles that have helped us understand inheritance. His ideas were totally different than the explanation for passage of characteristics from parents to offspring that was common to his time. List and describe his principles and describe how each contributes to genetic variability. How might biology have be different if his discoveries had not been lost for decades? Be prepared to discuss the significance of Mendel’s discoveries to modern biology.
5. Gene therapy is a major area of research for curing a variety of genetic diseases. Briefly describe the process of gene therapy. Give a specific and detailed example of how gene therapy may be used to solve problems associated with genetic disorders. Be prepared to discuss the benefits and possible hazards of gene therapy to human health.
6. Cloning has been seen in the news and as a major topic of debate. Briefly describe the process of cloning. What might be the benefits of cloning? What are potential dangers or threats associated with the widespread use of cloning? Be prepared to discuss the ethics of cloning in its various proposed forms and uses.

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