Solution-How many calories are from fat per serving

Pre-Activity Assignment: Fatty Acids, Nutrition and Health

Read the Fatty Acids, Nutrition and Health reading and Chapter 3 in the text book and then answer the following questions before class.

1. A trans fatty acid is one

a. that has no carbon-carbon double bonds directly adjacent to each other.
b. that is a major component of phospholipids in cell membranes.
c. in which the hydrogens attached to adjacent carbons in a carbon-carbon double covalent bond are on opposite sides of the molecule.
d. in which the hydrogens attached to adjacent carbons in a carbon-carbon double covalent bond are on the same side of the molecule.
e. that is saturated with hydrogens.

2. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are necessary in the human diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body are called _____________ fatty acids.

a. essential
b. important
c. trans
d. omega-3
e. hydrophobic

3. Generations of Americans were introduced to trans fats in their diet in the form of ____________ which was hailed as a healthy alternative to the saturated fats found in butter and lard.

a. Coconut oil
b. Olive oil
c. Margarine
d. Canola oil
e. Beef tallow

4. HDL stands for

a. Highly dense lipid.
b. Hydrogenated dark lipid.
c. High density lipid.
d. Hydrogenated dense lipoprotein.
e. High density lipoprotein.

5. In the next class meeting you will work in small collaborative groups to answer four question sets. Each person in the group will act as the ‘facilitator’ for one question set, leading the group discussion, promoting input from each of the other students (who will be acting as ‘discussants’) and formalizing the group response. In the role of a discussant, students provide their knowledge, experience and perspectives, compare and contrast the inputs of other members of the group and collaborate in the formulation of the group response. At the end of the activity, you may be called on to present your group’s answers to one of the question sets (not necessarily the one you were the facilitator for). You will act as both a facilitator and a discussant in the activity.

Make sure you have critically analyzed the Fatty Acids, Nutrition and Health scenario and chapter 3 in the text book so that you are prepared to participate in all aspects of the group activity. Bring the scenario with you to the next class meeting.

Activity-Fatty Acids, Nutrition and Health (Critical Question Sets)

1. Plaque Formation in Arteries: High levels of LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream can lead to formation of “plaques” in the arteries.

_________________________________

Facilitator

• What are the potential health consequences of coronary arteries being clogged by “plaques”?

• Name some specific foods that might lead to increased LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream.

• What do these foods contain that could cause this?

2. Nutrition Labels: Analyze the nutrition label below and answer the following questions.

______ ___________________________

Facilitator

• How much total fat, saturated fat and trans fat does this product contain per serving?

• How many grams of total fat would a person consume if he/she ate the whole container?

• How many calories are from fat per serving?

• Calculate the percentage of the total calories per serving that come from total fat?

• Based on a 2,000 calorie diet, what percent of the USDA’s percent daily value for total fat would be consumed per serving? Calculate the percent if the whole container was consumed?

• Based on what you know about trans fats, do you think there are hydrogenated oils in this product? Explain.

3. Hydrogenation of Oils: Answer the following questions about hydrogenation of vegetable oils.

_________ _____________ ___________
Facilitator

• What is the reason behind hydrogenating vegetable oils? What effect does the hydrogenation process have on their chemical and physical properties?

• Draw both a cis isomer and a trans isomer of a polyunsaturated fatty acid. Which would be produced by the hydrogenation process?

4. Cholesterol Profiles: Answer the following question using what you know about cholesterol and the tables to the right that show health categories based on blood levels of different fractions of cholesterol.

___________ _____________________

204_Nutrition Facts.jpg

Facilitator

• Circle the blood cholesterol profile below that you think would be most desirable? What about this profile made you choose it over the others? Explain why you didn’t choose each of the other two.

410_Cholesterol Profiles.jpg

(a)

Type of cholesterol

Concentration mg/dL

Total

195

HDL

40

LDL

135

(b)

Type of cholesterol

Concentration mg/dL

Total

245

HDL

50

LDL

125

(c)

Type of cholesterol

Concentration Ing/dL

Total

200

HDL

65

LDL

105

Post-Activity Assignment: Fatty Acids, Nutrition and Health ________________________

Name

6. Which one of the following diagrams represents a trans fatty acid?

525_trans fatty acid.jpg

7. Which one of the following would be solid at room temperature?

a. Cis fatty acids
b. Corn oil
c. Peanut oil
d. Saturated fats such as lard (pig fat)
e. Unsaturated fats

8. A true lipid is composed of glycerol and three fatty acids. What type of reaction is used to link each of the fatty acids to a glycerol molecule?

a. Dehydration
b. Hydrolysis
c. Dehydrohalogenation
d. Hydrogenation
e. Hydroxylation

9. Food companies can tag their products on the nutrition label as having 0g of trans fats if they have <0.5g of trans fat per serving. What could be found in the ingredients list that is probably a better indicator of the presence of trans fats in foods than the trans fat line on the nutrition label?

a. Lard
b. Hydrogenated oils
c. Palm oil
d. Olive oil
e. Almonds

10. Consumption of which of the following is most likely to raise your HDL and also lower your LDL levels?

a. Trans fats
b. Saturated fats
c. Lard
d. Polyunsaturated fats
e. Margarine.

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