Difference between a sense and nonsense codon

What are the basic methods of bacterial culture and identification of mutants (Auxotrophs).

Understand the characteristics of the bacteria genome and the plasmid.

Understand the 3 methods of sexual transfer in bacteria.

What is the difference between F+, F-, Hfr cells

How do we map genes by conjugation? What are the map units?

What is the basic structure of a virus?

What is the difference between the Lytic vs. Lysogenic life cycles?

What is the structure of a Retrovirus? (3 genes)

What is the role of reverse transcriptase in the retrovirus life cycle?

Where did human HIV come from?What do the tRNA’s acceptor arm and anticodon do?

What are the 2 primary components of a ribosome?

How do miRNAs and siRNAs silence gene transcription? What is the function of Dicer?

What is the basic structure of an amino acid? Which part determines an A.A.’s chemical activity? How does this explain why some changes in amino acids can be functionally silent?

How does this explain how a change in the DNA sequence (mutation) causes a change in phenotype?

Identify the 4 levels of protein structural complexity.

What do we mean when we say that the genetic code is degenerate? How does this explain why some mutations are silent?

What’s the difference between a sense and nonsense codon?

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