State a stock homozygous for recessive autosomal genes

A stock homozygous for three recessive autosomal genes, a, b,and c, not necessarily linked on the same chromosome, ismated to a stock homozygous for their dominant wild-typealleles. F1 females are then backcrossed to males of thehomozygous recessive parental stock and the
following cross results are observed:

Phenotype Number Phenotype Number

a bc 42 a b+ 6
+ ++ 48 + +c 4
a ++ 46 a +c 5
+ b+ 44 + bc 5

1. Which of these genes are linked?

2. What is the recombination frequency between the linkedgenes?

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