Descriptions is an example of a fixed-action pattern

Which of the following descriptions is an example of a fixed-action pattern?

a. a crane in a captive-breeding program imprinting on its human caregiver

b. a male stickleback chasing a red-bellied object from its territory

c. a black cap migrating to its winter territory

d.a songbird learning its song after listening to a tape of its species’ song

. a digger wasp returning to its nest with the aid of landmarks 

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