Solution-Describe pathological processes involved in

1. Provide a discussion of the normal anatomy of endochondral versus intramembranous bone growth.

2. Describe the pathological (disease) processes involved in achondroplasia, and answer this question: Why do individuals with achondroplasia have a normal sized head but abnormally proportioned limbs?

3. Discuss how bone remodels throughout life and the healing process of a fracture.


Bobick, J and Balaban, N. “Skeletal System.” Handy Anatomy Answer Book. Visible Ink Press. MI, USA. 2008. eISBN: 9781578592326

Brooks, Arthur. “Muscular and Skeletal System.” Systems of Our Body. Pgs. 87-96. Global Media. Delhi, India. 2007. eISBN: 9788189940829

Hall, BK. Bones and Cartilage: Developmental Skeletal Biology. Chapters 1-3. Academic Press, Jordan Hill, GBR. 2005. eISBN: 9780080454153.

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