Solution-What happens as a result of fermentation

Part 1: THE CELL

1. The structure that surrounds the cytoplasm in a bacterial cell is the

A. rtucleoid. C. plasma membrane.
B. ribsosome. D. cell wall.

2. Which one of the following oils contains the largest amount of saturated fat?

A. Canola C. Olive oil
B. Safflower D. Coconut oil

3. The following atoms are all variations of the element carbon: 12.c, 13C, and 14C due to differing numbers of neutrons. What are these variations called?

A. Isomers C. Molecules
B. Isotopes D. Polymers

4. Any energy transformation involves the loss of some energy as

A. heat. C. light.
B. electric charge. D. motion.

5. Petunias belong to the kingdom

A. Animalia, C. Plantae.
B. Fungi. D. Protista.

6. Which one of these occurs during the light reactions of photosynthesis?

A. Carbon dioxide fixation C. NADPH production
B. G3P production D. Reduction of carbon dioxide

7. In a eukaryotic cell, protein synthesis occurs in the
A. nuclear envelope. C. chromosomes.
B. ribosomes. D. smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

8. The two major sets of reactions it in photosynthesis are

A. light reactions and Calvin cycle reactions.
B. glycolysis and the citric aID cycle.
C. Calvin cycle reactions and citric acid cycles.
D. light reactions and the electron transport chain.

9. As an enzyme fits into a substrate at the active site, It undergoes a slight change in order to fit into the substrate. This process is defined by a concept called the

A. active enzyme inhibition scheme. C. feedback inhibition model.
B. induced fit model. D. facilitated diffusion process.

10. An important property of water is that

A. it’s a good solvent.
B. its temperature rises and falls quickly.
C. it easily changes from liquid to gas.
D. it lacks cohesive properties.

11. Which of these statements most accurately describes how carbon dioxide enters a leaf?

A. CO2 is carried by water in leaf veins.
B. CU. enters a leaf through osmosis.
C. CO2 is pulled in by leaf veins.
D. CO2 defuses by way of the stomata.

12. A helix refers to a protein’s structure.

A. tertiary C. quaternary
B. primary D. secondary

13. Select the largest, most inclusive biological level among the following choices.

A. Cell C. Tissue
B. Organ D. Molecule

14. What happens as a result of fermentation?

A. Glycolysis only
B. Glycolysis and the reduction of pyruvate
C. Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
D. The reduction of pyr-uvate only

15. in the enzymatically controlled chemical reaction A 4 B + Cr the letter A stands for a

A. substrate. C. cofactor.
B. enzyme. D. product.

16. Which one of the following molecules is a product of cellular respiration?

A. Water C. Glucose
B. Fyruvate D. Oxygen

17. Which of these is the smallest structure?

A. Dipeptide C. Polypeptide
B . Amino acid D. Protein

18. Which of the following is true about bases?

A. They tend to decrease the pH of a solution.
B . They release hydroxide ions in solution.
C. They have a sharp or sour taste.
D. They help to build up cells.

19. Which one of the following reactions occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria?

A. The citric acid cycle C. The electron transport chain
B . The prep reaction D. Glycolysis

20. An insect is able to walk across the surface of a pond without sinking because of the

A. polarity of the water molecules.
B. process of evaporation.
C. cohesion between the water molecules.
D. adhesion of the insect’s feet to the. surface of the water.

21. A grassy meadow that’s home to rabbits, deer, and several species of birds is consid¬ered as a/an

A. population. C. biosphere.
B. community. D. ecosystem.

22. Which one of the following is an example of a monosaccharide?

A. Sucrose C. Starch
B. Glucose D. Cellulose

23. An element has an atomic number of 11 and an atomic weight of 23. How many neutrons does each atom contain?

A. 11 C. 23
B. 12 D. 24

24, The Calvin cycle of photosynthesis begins when

A. carbon dioxide is attached to RuBP.
B. light becomes available.
C. electrons leave a photosystem.
D. the reduction of carbon dioxide occurs.

25. If you immerse a living cell in a hypertonic solution, water will

A. more into the cell. C. move out of the cell.
B. remain constant. D. fluctuate in and out.

Part 2: Genetics

1. How does mitosis in plant cells differ from that in animal cells?

A. Animal cells don’t form a spindle.
B. Animal cells lack cytokinesis.
C. Plant cells lack a cell plate.
D. Plant cells lack centrioles.

2. Polygenic inheritance can explain

A. a range of phenotypes among the offspring.
B. the occurrence of degrees of dominance.
C. incomplete dominance.
D. pleiotropy syndrome.

3. Which of these is true of meiosis?

A. n 4 n C. 2n 4 n
B. n 4 2n D. 2n 4 2n

4. The genetic disorder sickle cell disease is an example of

A. pleiotropy. C. epiStasiS.
B. heterozygous dominance. D. homozygous dominance.

5. Which one of the following genotypes causes Klinefelter syndrome?

A. XY C. XXY
B. XX D. XYY

6. The phase of cell division in which the nuclear envelope and nucleolus are disappearing as the spindle fibers are appearing Is called

A. anaphase. C. telophase.
B. prophase. D. metaphase.

7. Which one of the following phrases best describes the human karyotype?

A. 46 pairs of autosomes
B. Sex chromosomes along with 23 pairs of autosomes
C. One pair of sex chromosomes and 22 pairs of autosomes
D. X and Y chromosomes and 22 pairs of autosomes

8. Autosomes are chromosomes.

A. haploid C. homologous
B. non-sex D. abnormal

9. When you notice that someone has unusually blue eyes, you’ve noticed their

A. allele. C. phenotype.
B. hybridization. D. genotype.

10. Which one of the following statements about mitosis is correct?

A. It’s part of the process of oogenesis.
B. It forms two daughter cells.
C. It creates haploid nuclei,
D. It consists of two parts: mitosis I and mitosis H.

11. Which of these is happening when translation takes place?

A. mRNA is still in the nucleus.
B. rlINAs expose their anticodons.
C. DNA is being replicated.
D. tRNAs are bringing amino acids to the ribosomes.

12. Two organisms, each with the genotypes TtGg, mate. The chance of producing an offspring that has the dominant phenotype for height (T) and the recessive phenotype for color (y) is

A. 3/16. C. 9/16.
B. 7/16. D. 11/16.

13. A parent with type AB blood could not produce a child with type

A. A. C. AB.
B. B. D. 0.

14. Which one of the following strands of DNA is the complement strand to C-C-A-T-C-G?

A. G-G-T-A-G-C C. A-A-C-G-A-T
B . G-G-A-T-G-C D. T-T-G-C-T-A

15. Which chromosomal mutation results in Alagille syndrome?

A. Inversion C. Duplication
B. Translocation D. Deletion

16. An enhancer affects what level of genetic control?

A. Post-transcription C. Transcription
B . Translation D. Post-translation

17. A woman who isn’t colorblind but has an allele for color blindness reproduces with a man who has normal vis[on. What is the chance that they’ll have a c.olorblInd daughter?

A. 50′ C. 100%
B . 25W4) D. 0%

18. A recessive allele t is responsible for a condition called distonia. A man who has this condition marries a woman who doesn’t. One of their four children has the condition. What are the possible genotypes of the man and the woman? (Hint: To help you answer this question, create a Fun nett square for each possibility.)

A. The father is Tt; the mother is 77.
B. The father is tt; the mother is TT.
C. Both parents are TT..
D. The father is tt; the mother is Tt.

19. If a piece of DNA breaks off from a chromosome and attaches itself to a nonhomologous chromosome at another location, what type of change has occurred?

A. Inversion C. Deletion
B. Duplication D. Tra nsl oca ti on

20. Which one of the following is a characteristic of cancer cells?

A. They’re usually either nerve cells or cardiac muscle cells.
B. They result in uncontrolled growth.
C. They have a specialized structure and function.
D. They can’t travel to other parts of the body.

21. Which one of the following illustrations shows the stage of mitosis during which the chromosomes are the most tightly condensed?

605_The Stage of Mitosis.jpg

 

22. From the cross Ad x Ad, the probability of producing a homozygous dominant offspring is

A. 25%. C. 75%.
B. 50%. D. 100%.

23. Genomics is

A. a sequence of mutant genes.
B. the study of the human genome.
C. the study of cellular protein structures.
D. a mechanism used in DNA fingerprinting.

24. Nondisjunction is the

A. exchange of chromosome pieces.
B. failure of chromosome pairs to separate completely.
C. loss of a piece of a chromosome.
D. repetitive replications of the same piece of a chromosome.

25. If a cell has 18 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would each daughter cell have after mitosis?

A. 9 C. 36
B. 18 D. The number can’t be determined.

Part 3: Evolution and the Diversity of Life

1. Which of the following is inaccurate in relation to viruses?

A. They have nucleic acid core.
B . They feature a capsid.
C. They seek out a specific host.
D. They reproduce independently.

2. Which structure develops into a pollen grain?

A. Microspore C. Megaspore
B . Anther D. Archegonium

3. According to the theory of evolution, birds’ feathers evolved from

A. fish fins. C. reptile scales.
B . gill slits. D. gill arches.

4. What type of skeleton helps an earthworm to move?

A. Exoskeleton C. Bony endoskeleton
B . Hydrostatic skeleton D. Spiny plates

5. Organisms that can interbreed and bear fertile offspring are considered to be in the same

A. order.
B. family.
C. class.
D. species.

6. Most fungi are
A. saprotrophic.
B. plant parasites.
C. producers.
D. unicellular.

7. is/are the raw material of evolutionary change.

A. Genetic drift C. Nonrandom mating
B. Mutations D. Assortative mating

8. The term molting refers to the

A. circulating of blood through a closed system.
B. movement with jointed appendages.
C. sheIDing of exoskeletons.
D. process of sexual reproduction.

9. What is the function of a nematocyst?

A. Prey capture C. Locomotion
B. Sensory perception D. Digestion

10. In the lytic cycle, the term maturation refers to the

A. translation of DNA.
B. integration of cDNA.
C. assembly of parts to produce viral particles.
D. penetration of the host cell wall.

11. Darwin argued that the beak size and shape of Galapagos finch species was related to their

A. body size. C. food source.
B. flight pattern. D. time of reproduction.

12. You have a chart that illustrates a series of species with their common ancestor. This chart is called alan

A. fossil record. C. gene pool.
B. cladogram. D. fiver kingdom system.

13. What is the function of the water vascular system in echinoderms?

A. .Excretion C. Locomotion
B. Feeding D. Protection

14. Which one of the following statemen1s presents a condition of the Hardy-Weinberg principle?

A. Gene flow is present. C. Random mating occurs.
B. Genetic drift occurs. Di Mutations are present.

15. Which of the following is an invertebrate?

A. Lancelet C. Shark
B. Lamprey D. Duck-bliled platypus

16. In evolution, the study of vertebrate forelimbs is related to evidence.

A. biogeographical C. biochemical
B. anatomical D. fossil

17. The distinction between protostomes and deuterostomes is based on differences in their

A. digestive tracts. C. embryological development.
B. nervous systems. D. circulatory systems.

18. Which of the following is not a form of genetic recombination in bacteria?

A. Conjugation C. Transformation
B. Transduction D. Binary fission

19. Industrial melanism is an example of selection.

A. directional C. sexual
B. disruptive Di stabilizing

20. Acquisition of the same or similar characteristics in distantly related lines of descent is called

A. evolution. C. evolution by natural selection.
B. convergent evolution. D. evolution by mutation.

21. Darwin reasoned that if the world is very old, then

A. taxonomy will have to give up the binomial system of nomenclature.
B. evolution couldn’t have occurred.
C. geological changes occur over relatively brief periods of time.
D. there was time for evolution to occur.

22. Which one of the following statements describes a characteristic of amoeboids?

A. They never have a shell. C. They have pseudopods.
B. They always live in fresh water. D. They’re animals.

23. Which one of the following pairs represents a con-ect association?

A. Mollusc-spider C. Mollusc-leech
B. Annelid-earthworm D. Annelid-octopus

24. The frequency of the dark form of the peppered moth increased in industrial areas of England during the nineteenth century. This was because

A. predatory birds changed their preference from the light to the dark form.
B. the light form was more sensitive to deteriorating environmental conditions.
C. birds couldn’t see the dark-colored moths on the trees darkened by industry.
D. the allele for dark color is dominant to that for light color.

25. Which one of the following plants is nonvascular?

A. Moss C. Fern
B. Cycad D. Rosebush

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