Genetic material of prokaryotes-viral disease of humans

1. What is the basis of grouping species into a single clade?

a. similar noticable characteristics
b. similar names
c. a logical common ancestry
d. similar colors

2. An organism that uses H2S to reduce CO2 to carbohydrate is a:

a. chemoautotroph
b. chemoheterotroph
c. photoautotroph
d. photoheterotroph

3. The genetic material of prokaryotes:

a. can be either DNA or RNA
b. is circular and attached to the plasma membrane
c. is found in a distinct nucleus
d. a and b
e. a and c

4. Which of the following statements about Archaea is FALSE?:

a. Archaea have a peptidoglycan cell wall and a plasma membrane containing branched lipids.
b. Archaea resemble eukaryotes with respect to RNA polymerase and introns.
c. Archaea resemble (eu)bacteria with respect to the absence of a nuclear envelope and the absence of membrane enclosed organelles.
d. Archaea tend to be found in extreme habitats, including miles deep below the earth’s surface.
e. Archaea was first recognized as a distinct group of bacteria by Woese

6. Which of the following is TRUE regarding prokaryotes?:

a. Bacilli are spherical shaped bacteria.
b. Plasmids may confer drug resistance to the host cell.
c. Pili are surface structures responsible for chemotaxis.
d. The flagellum spins and is composed of microtubules.
e. They reproduce by mitosis

7. The bacterial cell wall typically consists of:

a. cellulose
b. chitin
c. peptidoglycan
d. protein
e. polysaccharide

8. Which of the following distinguishes Archaea from Bacteria and Eukarya?

a. Archaea use formyl methionine as the initiator amino acid whereas the other two do not.
b. Archaea and Bacteria possess nuclear membrane whereas Eukarya does not.
c. Bacteria and Eukarya have multiple RNA polymerases whereas Archaea have only one.
d. Bacteria and Eukarya have unbranched membrane lipids whereas Archaea have branched membrane lipids.
e. None of the above.

9. Which of the following is TRUE regarding viruses?

a. The capsid consists of host cell encoded protein and encloses either RNA or DNA as hereditary material.
b. Viruses are living entities.
c. Viruses only infect animal hosts.
d. Viruses can transfer genes between organisms.

10. Which of the following is NOT a viral disease of humans?

a. anthrax
b. smallpox
c. Ebola
d. measles
e. rabies

11. Which of the following is TRUE about the progression of HIV infection?

a. T-cells are infected first through association between the particle and the CD4 receptor.
b. T-cells are infected first through the association between the particle, the CD4 receptor and the CXCR4 receptor.
c. T-cells are infected, after macrophages are infected, through the association between the particle and both the CD4 receptor and the CXCR4 receptor.
d. T-cells are infected, after macrophages are infected, through the association between the particle and both the CD4 receptor and the CCR5 receptor.
e. Only macrophages are infected, though the association of the particle with the CD4 receptor and the CCR5 receptor.

12. Which of the following does not describe a prion?

a. is capable of directing the refolding of other prion proteins that were previously doing their normal jobs
b. is highly transmissable, even thorough the stomach
c. contains nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
d. cause spongiform encephalies in many different species of animal
e. may be involved in long term memory storage

13. Which of the following is NOT a way that a bacteria is likely to evade the immune system of its host? Note: a macrophage is a giant white blood cell that can “eat” bacteria

a. preventing the macrophages from ingesting it
b. preventing the macrophages from digesting it after ingesting it
c. preventing the macrophages from noticing it by hiding in an intestinal cell
d. inserting its genome into a host cell to await more appropriate conditions
e. changing the proteins expressed on the outside of the cell, through subsequent generations, to avoid an immune response

14. Which of the following is now known to be a large contributing factor in the development of ulcers (a breakdown in the mucus coating the human stomach, resulting in acid erosion of the stomach wall)?

1. A fungus called S. pombe
2. A bacteria called H. pylori
3. Adenovirus
4. An excess production of acid
5. Stress

15. Which of the following diseases would NOT logically be treated with an antibiotic?

a. Cholera
b. Influenza
c. Syphillis
d. Gonherrea
e. Chlamydia

16. Which of the following is not a known function of prokaryotes?

a. Nitrogen fixation
b. Decompositon of organic material
c. Symbiosis with animal hosts
d. Oxygen production
e. all of these are known functions of prokaryotes

17. Which of the following is a general rule applying to the protists?

1. They are all unicellular.
2. They are all eukaryotic.
3. They all have mitochondria.
4. They all have chloroplasts.
5. none of the above

18. Bacteriophages that have become integrated into the host cell chromosome are called

a. intemperate bacteriophages.
b. transposons.
c. prophages.
d. T-even bacteriophages.
e. plasmids.

19. Protease inhibitors are effective in treatment of HIV because they inhibit:

a. exocytosis of mature viruses from the host cell
b. migration of viral DNA to the nucleus
c. processing of viral proteins encoded by gag, pol and env genes
d. reverse transcription of viral RNA into DNA

20. Viruses have some of the properties of living organisms. Which of the following is a characteristic of all organisms, but NOT of viruses?

a. genetic information stored as nucleic acid
b. ability to control metabolism
c. ability to reproduce
d. structure includes proteins
e. plasma membrane

21. Which of the following is NOT correct regarding viruses?:

a. A lytic cycle occurs when viral reproduction causes the host cell to rupture
b. Evolutionarily, viruses may be derived from transposable genetic elements (transposons).
c. In the lysoõclx.øi5, the viral genome is integrated into the host genome as prophage.
d. Reverse transcriptase makes a DNA copy of the HIV genetic material which then integrates into a host cell chromosome.
e. Viruses tend to evolve independently of their hosts.

22. The function of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses is to

a. hydrolyze the host cell’s DNA.
b. use viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
c. convert host cell RNA into viral DNA.
d. translate viral RNA into proteins.
e. use viral RNA as a template for making complementary RNA strands.

23. The HIV particle:

a. contains two identical DNA molecules and two reverse transcriptase molecules
b. has a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell
c. is primarily spread through non-sexual contact
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

24. As a group, retroviruses are distinguished from other viral groups by:

a. an outer lipid bilayer derived from the host cell and containing virally encoded protein
b. RNA as hereditary material
c. reverse transcriptase
d. b and c
e. a, b and c

25. Among viruses:

a. T4 infects the intestinal bacterium E. coli
b. lambda phage can have either a lytic or lysogenic life cycle
c. RNA viruses are theJÄtcx.øi5 terms of numbers of genes
d. a and b
e. a, b and c

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