What area is not involved with pumping protons to the intermembrane space?
A.complex IB.complex IIC.complex IIID.complex IV
NADH and FADH2 are products of
A.chemiosmosisB.glycolysisC.oxidation/reduction reactionsD.substrate level phosphorylation
When has glucose been broken down from its original 6 carbon molecule to 6 molecules of carbon dioxide?
A.oxidation of pyruvateB.glycolysisC.when isocitrate is oxidized to ?-KetoglutarateD.when ?-Ketoglutarate is oxidized to Succinyl CoAE.condensation of acetyle-CoA with oxaloacetate
In gluconeogenesis, organisms use ATP to make glucose, then in cellular respiration they break down the glucose again to get energy. Why not just store the ATP? (Select all that apply.)
A. ATP does not have high-energy bonds.B. ATP is not energy dense enough.C. ATP only has energy after it is activated by glucose.D. ATP only has energy when it is attached to glucose.E. ATP is not stable enough.F. ATP without a cofactor forms crystalline structures.G. Using glucose directly to power enzymes is more efficient.
Molecules generated from butter will enter aerobic cellular respiration at
C. pyruvate oxidation
What is not a good biological oxidizing agent?
A. Fe3+B. O2C.NAD+D.FAD
What vitamin derivative accepts hydrogen for complex I during ETC?
____________ carbon dioxide molecules are given off during three turns of the Krebs cycle?
Removal of NH3 is best described as ____________ .
Assuming 2 ATPs are produced per FADH2, how many ATPs will be produced in oxidative phosphorylation per glucose molecule?
What is the flow of energy in order from source to end?
Light-dependent reactions build NADPH and oxygen by ________________ .
A.oxidationB.reductionC.oxidation and reduction
The light independent reactions are important because they
A.make ATP and NADPHB.convert CO2 into glucoseC.split H2O to harvest electronsD.release O2
P700 first transfers an electron through chlorophyll and a bound
Protons from electron transport will amass in the
A.stromaB.intermembrane spaceC.matrixD.thylakoid lumen
Organic molecules are made in the _______________ .
A.light dependent reactionsB.Calvin cycleC.Krebs cycleD.glycolysis
What statement shows the relationship among chloroplasts and mitochondria?
A.both release carbon dioxideB.both generate ATP by proton gradientC.both reduce NADP+D.both use oxygen as the final electron acceptor
What properties are expressed by wavelengths? Select all that apply.
A. Red absorbs little energyB. Visible light’s wavelengths are between 400-740nmC. Green is useful in absorbing light during photosynthesisD. Visible light’s wavelengths are between 400-740nmE. Chlorophyll b absorbs a lot of energy from 460nm wavelengthsF. Chlorophyll a reflects red light well
If rubisco does not function properly, what process would be affected?
A.ability to fix carbonB.ability to split waterC.ability to reduce NADP+D.ability to absorb photons
____________ membranes can be found in a chloroplasts.
What describes transcription factors?
A.control of gene expressionB.regulation of DNA duplicationC.ATP into cAMPD.synthesis of glycogen
Cell surface receptors have three domains with different roles. Match each role to the domain that is responsible.
A. Hydrophobic domain
B. Extracellular domain
C. Cytosolic domain
1. Binds the signaling molecule ________
2. Sends conformational change through the plasma membrane ________
3. Interacts with downstream signaling cascade ________
If calcium levels are low, cAMP activity increases which leads to synthesis and release of parathyroid hormone. cAMP acts as a(n)
Diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate are released from phosphatidylinositol biphosphate by ________ .
B.phospholipase CC.protein kinase CD.G-proteinE.A-kinase
________ is the substrate for adenylyl cylcase.
Protein phosphorylating enzymes help regulated gene expression by
A.moving mRNA into the cytoplasmB.translationC.DNA synthesisD.protein activation
A common theme in many pathways is a cascade of similar enzymes acting on each other in sequence. For instance, MAP kinase kinase kinase aIDs a phosphate to MAP kinase kinase, which aIDs phosphate to MAP kinase, which aIDs phosphate to another substrate.
What is the benefit of using a cascade of enzymes?
A.Extra genes provide backup in case the original became mutated.B.A cascade amplifies output from the original signal.C.There is no benefit – “selfish genes” are often maintained in evolution for reasons unrelated to the function of their encoded proteins.D.A cascade is used for timing since it delays the response.
Vibrio fischeri are bioluminescent when the population reaches a certain size. This is an example of
A.population densityB.quorum sensingC.exponential growthD.principle of growthE.binary fission
Since plants have rigid cell walls formed from cellulose, transfer of information and materials between cells is prohibited.
Teeth can have a biofilm formed on the surface. Cell signaling will
A.increase cell quantityB.cause increase saliva productionC.cause apoptosisD.cause uncontrolled cell division
Which molecule initiates the halt of the cycle when damaged DNA is detected in G1?
In which type of human cell(s) would 46 chromosomes be located? Select all that apply.
A. diploidB. eggC. somaticD. gameteE. spermF. haploid
If there are 8 centromeres in metaphase, how many centromeres will be present in anaphase?
A large cell will be initiated to divide because
A.a decrease in surface-to-volume ratio
B.an increase in surface-to-volume ratioC.crowding from smaller cellsD.large cells do not experience quiescent stageE.large cells use more nutrients than small cells
Damaged DNA can potentially be repaired during which checkpoint. Select all that apply.
A. G1B. SC. G2D. G0E. M
Place the order of events in chromosome packaging from beginning to end.
A.DNA double helix, nucleosome, sister chromatids, chromatinB.Chromatin, nucleosomes, DNA double helix, sister chromatidsC.DNA double helix, chromatin, nucleosomes, sister chromatidsD.sister chromatids, DNA double helix, chromatin, nucleosome
In nature, there is an exception to every rule. Of the species below, which one has a very unusual genome that violates the “rule”?
A.Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease, has a linear genome and up to 21 plasmids.B.E. coli, a common bacterium in the human intestine, has DNA nucleotides A, T, C, and G, with only one OH group on the sugar moiety.C.Humans have a genome formed from 23 pairs of linear chromosomes, each of which is so long that it must be wrapped up and condensed into a special structure to fit in the nucleus.D.Arabidopsis pollen is haploid, carrying only one copy each of five linear chromosomes.
When the p53 gene is damaged, which event may happen?
A.Cells can divide uncontrolloblyB.Cells will fix the DNA pass the G1 checkpointC.Cells will pass the G2 checkpointD.Cells will always undergo apoptosis
A cell’s entire amount of hereditary information is the
If a researcher looks at a cell and notices a straight line of sister chromatids, which phase are they viewing?
What is an advantage of asexual reproduction? Select all that apply.
A. it occurs quicklyB. populates areas rapidlyC. all organizms are clonesD. high genetic diversityE. only need one parent
An organism has 36 chromosomes. At the end of meiosis I, each gamete contains
A.26 chromosomes, 36 chromatidsB.36 chromosomes, 72 chromtidsC.18 chromosomes, 36 chromatidsD.18 chromosomes, 18 chromatids
Which is important in stabilization of homolog pairing and formation of crossover in meiotic prophase?
Meiosis and sexual reproduction increase diversity because
A.they are archaic processesB.it allows for populations to adapt to environmental changesC.they only need one parentD.they will almost always have different offspring ariseE.they produce offspring extremely quickly
Which event is similar between prophase I and prophase? Select all that apply.
A. The nuclear membrane begins to disintegrateB. Spindle fibers appearC. Each chromosome is composed of two chromatidsD. Chromosomes condenseE. Each chromosome has potentially experienced crossoverF. Tetrads are present
A large family has a history of multiple aneuploid diseases such as Down Syndrome, trisomy-18 and Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY). The propensity to defects seems to be inherited, but the gene responsible is unknown.
What types of candidate genes would be most likely to lead to aneuploidy if they were mutated?
A.Genes that are part of the G1 checkpoint of mitosis.B.Genes that encode proteins involved in chiasma formation.C.Histone genes.D.Genes that control DNA synthesis.
A nuclear envelope does not usually form around each set of chromosomes in the haploid daughter cells in _________.
A.interphaseB.prophase IC.metaphase ID.anaphase IE.telophase IF.prophase IIG.metaphase IIH.anaphase III.telophase IIJ.cytokinesis
Which structure is separated by microtubules resulting in sister chromatids?
Which describes the relationship between gametes and spores?
A.gametes can fuse to become a zygote, but spores can develop into organisms without forming a zygoteB.gametes, not spores, can only contribute to genetic diversity in populationsC.gametes are always haploid and spores are always diploiID.gametes come directly from sporophytes to develop into gametophytes
How does metaphase in meiosis I and meiosis II differ?
A.Sister chromatids are on the metaphase plate in meiosis I and tetrads are on the metaphase plate in meiosis II.B.Homologous chromosomes line up in meiosis I and duplicated chromosomes line up in meiosis II.
C.All chromatids are the exact same in meiosis I and differ in meiosis II due to independent assortmentD.The ploidy level remains the same in meiosis I but will be reduced in meiosis II.