1. Describe the utility of quantitative health risk assessment in the light of the article posted here on “Quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era-Burns et. al., 2014”. in risk assessment process that what more/missing information may be required to complete the QRA. Do your research and cite works to support your answer.
2. Based on the commentary posted on “Evaluating Uncertainty to Strengthen Epidemiologic Data for Use in Human Health Risk Assessments” and glossary of Health Risk Assessment, how would you differentiate the application of Uncertainty and Variability in the process of risk assessment. Describe in few sentences and cite at least one example of each.
3. National Research Council (NRC) is committed to strengthen toxic Chemical risk Assessments to protect human health because recently it concluded that,
- The U.S. system for assessing chemicals for safety is broken
- The vast majority of chemicals in use today have never been tested for their potential to harm human health or the environment.
- Chemicals that have been tested have numerous data gaps and uncertainties.
- The range of human exposures and vulnerability is large and poorly understood.
- The risk assessment process for common chemicals is convoluted and subject to decades of delay due to corporate interference and litigation.
The depiction below presents a traditional risk assessment map.
Toxicity testing and risk assessment. Source: Adapted from NRC. copyright 2007, National Academies Press.
Based on the two articles on QRA and Uncertainty, where do you think that the improved QRA will make strong impact to strengthen the process of risk assessment in 21st century?
4. In the proposed quantitative risk assessment (posted article) during post genomic era, which of the phases include reorientation of QRA towards more direct linkages to human outcomes? How do you see that biomarkers will play an important role in QRA in post genomic QRA? Describe in 5-6 sentences.